What is Mohs Surgery?
Mohs surgery is a microscopically guided procedure for skin cancer removal. Today, it is considered the most advanced method for treating skin cancers in cosmetically sensitive areas and for certain other hard to treat skin cancers.
Who performs Mohs Surgery?
Dr. Matthew Halpern is a fellowship trained Mohs Surgeon. He attended Harvard Medical School and completed his residency in Internal Medicine at Lenox Hill Hospital. He was the chief resident of Dermatology at St. Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital-Columbia University where he completed a two-year fellowship in Mohs Surgery and Cutaneous Oncology at New York Presbyterian-Columbia University. He is Board Certified in Dermatology. A specialized team of several surgical assistants, a technician who prepares the tissue for microscopic examination, and our office staff, assist Dr. Halpern.
What are the Advantages of Mohs Surgery?
Though most of a skin cancer is usually visible to the naked eye, microscopic cancer cells may extend outside of the central tumor. If these extensions are not removed, the skin cancer may reappear. To guarantee removal of these microscopic areas, most physicians must remove a wide area of normal skin around the visible skin cancer. Even with this safety margin skin cancers removed with traditional treatments can return or require additional surgical procedures.
In Mohs Surgery, the tumor-removal process is tracked microscopically. We are therefore able to best ensure that the entire skin cancer is cured while at the same time removing as little normal, healthy skin as possible. This is particularly important in cosmetically important areas. Of course, any procedure will leave a scar, but by preserving the maximum amount of healthy skin Dr. Halpern strives to offer the best possible cosmetic result.
How Large Will the Wound Be?
The size and shape of the wound depend upon the extent of the skin cancer. Although this cannot be predicted before surgery, it is typically several millimeters wider than the visible skin cancer.
How is Mohs Surgery Performed?
Mohs surgery is performed in our office on an outpatient basis. First, local anesthesia is used to numb the tumor site. Then, a thin layer of skin is removed, processed in our office, and examined under the microscope by Dr. Halpern. If cancer cells remain, their locations are carefully diagrammed on a map. Using this map as a guide, another thin layer of skin will then be removed. Depending on the branching pattern of the tumor, this process may be repeated several times.
How Will the Wound be Repaired?
In some areas of the face, small wounds may look best if allowed to heal on their own. Most defects require at least a few small stitches. Larger wounds may need skin flaps or grafts. Both techniques involve moving healthier skin into the surgical wound. Unusually large or complicated tumors may require consultation with another sub-specialist.
Unfortunately, the type of repair needed for your wound cannot be determined until the entire skin cancer is removed. Remember—the primary reason for Mohs Surgery is to cure the skin cancer. Once this is completed, Dr. Halpern and our staff will help you to achieve the best cosmetic outcome possible.
How Long Will it Take?
Each stage of surgical sampling takes only about 15-20 minutes, though an additional hour is then needed for our team to process and evaluate your specimen.
Depending on the extent of your skin cancer, this cycle may need to be repeated several times throughout the morning until your entire tumor is removed.
In most cases, Dr. Halpern will repair your wound immediately following surgery, but we may need you to come back the next day. Depending on the complexity of this procedure, this step may take between fifteen minutes and one hour.
Because we cannot predict the size of your skin cancer before surgery, it is impossible for us to determine how long the process will take. Please plan to spend your entire day with us. Hopefully, we will have you home much sooner.
Will I Need to Come Back?
Usually, only one or two return visits are needed to repair, remove stitches or examine the healing surgical site. Afterwards, it is essential that you return to your referring physician for routine skin examinations.
What are the Risks of Mohs Surgery?
Scarring: A scar will always occur from surgery. Mohs surgery should, however, result in the smallest possible scar. In most cases, scars begin as pink and bumpy and then fade slowly. Occasionally, minor procedures are used to improve the scar.
Bleeding: Though more extensive bleeding is always possible, very minor bleeding during surgery is expected.
Pain: During surgery, pain is limited to the initial needles needed to introduce local anesthesia. Following surgery, most patients experience minor discomfort, which can be controlled by Tylenol.
Infection: Infection following surgery is rare. If an area does become infected, it can be controlled by oral antibiotics.
Nerve Damage: Rarely, your skin cancer may be located around a small nerve. If this does happen, the skin surrounding your surgery may be numb. In rare cases, your skin cancer may surround a nerve which leads to a muscle. If this nerve is damaged, movement of this muscle may be permanently impaired.
Recurrence: Mohs surgery offers the highest cure rate of all skin cancer treatments. Medicine is, however, an imperfect science. Rarely, a tumor may reappear within the treated area.
How Should I Prepare for Surgery?
Medicines: Continue to take all medications as prescribed by your physician. If you are taking aspirin, Vitamin E, or other supplements, please stop these for one week prior to surgery. These may cause increased bleeding. Be sure to take all of your other medications on the morning of surgery, and bring any doses that you take during the day with you to our office.
Alcohol: Alcohol may also cause increased bleeding. Please avoid alcohol for two days prior to surgery and two days after surgery.
Meals: On the day of surgery, eat your normal breakfast. We suggest that you bring lunch with you.
Matthew Halpern, MD